Welcome to Official Website of Bangladesh Academy of Pathology

Oral Lesions

BAP Slide Quiz with Professor M Kamal

Topic: ORAL Mucosal Lesions
Date: 10 June 2022 Time: 7:30 PM

Case No. 01: Clinical information: Male 47 years. White patches in buccal mucosa for 4 years not improving on conservative treatment.

Dx.  Leukoplakia with dysplasia


















Case No. 02: Clinical information: Female 36 years. White path on both lateral borders of tongue for 3 years. Burning sensation during eating.

Dx. Lichen planus





























Case No. 03. Clinical information: Male 50 years. Small biopsy from a white patch in left buccal mucosa. The habit of betal nut leaf for long.

Dx. Oral submucosal fibrosis































Case No. 04 Clinical information: Male 30 Years. Diffuse whitish, diffuse, painless, spongy plaques on buccal mucosa.

Dx. White spongy nevus











































Case No. 05 Clinical information: Female 45 years. Progressing blackish patches in oral mucosa, gum and tongue.

Dx. Oral mucosal melanosis (Addison’s disease )















Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology July 2021, V-5, N-2

Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology
Official Organ of Bangladesh Academy of Pathology
Vol 5, No 2, July 2021
Front Cover
Editorial Board


Sl No Article Title Page
1 Liquid Biopsy: Current Prospects and Challenges
Rahman DA, Sharif MM
  Original Contributions  
2 Histomorphological Pattern of Lung in a Sequential Series of 200 Autopsies Sample in Dhaka Medical College
Biswas U, Dewan RK, Ferdous JN, Jinnah SA,  Akter K, Sultana T, Khan RR, Saha MK, Islam MA
3 Histomorphological Types of Thyroiditis Coexisting with Multinodular Goitre
Papry A, Kamal M
4 Association of E-Cadherin Expression in Radical Cystectomy Specimens of Infiltrating Urothelial Carcinoma with Histopathological Parameters
Rahman P, Khan KH, Rahman MM, Karim R, Islam AF, Shabnam S, Islam T, Mahmuda SS
5 Demographic Incidence of Germ Cell Tumors and their Clinicopathological Spectrum: A 2 Years’ Observation
Nasreen S, Sadaf A, Jahan R, Ara SA
6 Association between Immunohistochemical Expression of p53 Protein and Histopathological Prognostic Factors in Gastric Carcinoma
Karim R, Kabir AN, Rahman P,Hassan MI, Nowsher MN, Sultana S, Siddika F, Rahman MM
Case Reports
7 Cystic Partially Differentiated Nephroblastoma – Rare Renal Neoplasm of Childhood
Islam T, Biswas A, Parveen S, Rahman MM
8 Information for Contributors



Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology

January 2021, Vol 5 Issue 1

Front Cover


Sl No Article Title Page
1 The Necessity of Clinical History in Histopathology Reporting

Banu SG



  Original Contributions  
2 Evaluation of CD56 Expression in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma and its Correlation with Histopathological Grading and Staging

Zhumur M, Rahman A, Rahman MM, Jinnah MA, Jahra FT, Dewan MR, Jeba R

3 Expression of Ki-67 along with ER, PR in Relation with Ductal Carcinoma of Breast

Jahan N, Islam N, Kabir E, Hassan MI, Ferdose J, Khanam K, Sultana S


4 The Spectrum of Histopathological Lesions in Gallbladder

Ansari M, Khan AH, Hossain S, Chowdhury MS, Khanom F


5 Histopathological Evaluation of Childhood Liver Disease: An Experience in a Tertiary Centre of Bangladesh

Parvez M, Arjuman F, Arshad–Ul –Azim M, Mahmud S, Ahmed SS


Review Article
6 Pattern of Invasion; a Reliable Prognostic Indicator for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Munmun UK, Baqi SA, Kabir AN, Begum F, Mehjabin M, Hassan MI

Case Reports
7 Primary Lung Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma: A Case Report
Parvez M, Haque AA, Khair MM
8 Biphenotypic Sinonasal Sarcoma in a Twenty Six Year Old Female- A Newly Described Entity

Afroz S, Jamtsho J, Rahman P, Dey BP, Rahman MM, Rahman MZ

9 Published Erratum
10 Information for Contributors

Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology 2020, July

Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology

Official Organ of Bangladesh Academy of Pathology

Vol 4, No 2, July 2020

Front Cover PDF

Index/Contents PDF

Inside Back cover PDF


Sl No Article Title Page no
1 Histopathological Findings in Fatal COVID-19 Infections
Talukder SI
  Original Contributions  
2 Intratumoral and Peritumoral Angiogenic and Lymphangiogenic Microvessel Density in Invasive Breast Carcinoma and their Correlation with Lymph Node Metastasis
Mehjabin M,Asaduzzaman, Chakravarty S,Hassan MI, Munmun UK,Islam N,Talukder AS, Kamal M
3 Immunohistochemical Analysis and Molecular Subtyping of Breast Cancer
Sharmin S,  Ambiya AS,  Hussain M, Rima FAPDF
4 Diagnosis of Hirschsprung Disease by Frozen Section Biopsy Using Routine Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) Stain: A Year’s Study
Banu SG, Islam T
5 Histomorphology of Gastroesophageal Junction Lesions (GEJ) and their Malignant Potential in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A Study of 145 Cases in a Tertiary Level Hospital in Bangladesh
Zabin SG, Dewan RK, Jinnah SA, Jeba R, Sultana T, Rahman LY, Khan ZB
6 E-Cadherin Expression in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and its Correlation with Histopathological Grade and Tumour Stage
Quruni MO, Saha MK, Afrin SS, Hossain MS, Shaheen N, Dewan RK
7 Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147) Expression and its Correlation with Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Saha MK,Quruni MO, Afrin SS, Hossain MS,Mahmud  F,  Mahmud SA, Jinnah MA, Dewan MR
Review Article
8 The Many Faces of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Review
  Case Reports  
9 Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Breast: A Case Report
Sadaf A, Hossain MI, Sultana N, Khan AS
10 Information for Contributors


Meetings and Seminars

5th National Convention, BAP, 2022.


Call for Abstracts from BAP Members

The scientific sub-committee of 5th National Convention of Bangladesh Academy of Pathology (BAP) which will be held virtually cordially invites abstracts for free paper session. The last date for submission of abstracts is 10th January 2022.

The abstract should be the computer composed and not exceeding 250 words. The title of the papershould in bold capital letters. The title should be followed by name(s) of the presenting authors. The text should briefly cover the introduction, objective, methodology, results and conclusions. The abstract should be mailed to Prof. Dr Nasimul Islam (nasimul83@yahoo.com) and Prof. Dr.Md. Zillur Rahman, (drzillur@gmail.com)  Members Scientific Subcommittee.

The scientific sub-committee will send acceptance letter to the presenting author by 15th January 2022. The allotted time for each presentation is   eight minutes. Question-answer session will be held at the end of the session.

Thanking  You


Prof. Md. Golam Mostofa

Chairman, Scientific sub-committee.

5th National Convention, BAP, 2022.



Minutes of EC Meeting on 25/11/2021 in PDF Open



Scientific Webinar from BAP
Topic: Immuno-Interrogation to Define Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Sharing Experience 2020.
0n 8th January 2021, Friday at  07:30 pm (Bangladesh standard time)

Panel of experts:
1. Prof Humaun Kamal Islam (USA)
2. Prof Ferdousy Begum
3. Lt Col Wasim Selimul Haque
Recorded video in youtube embedded here


Scientific Webinar on Prostate Cancer presented by Professor Golam Mostafa on 25-12-2020 [Video]



Meeting on MD Pathology curriculum on 20-12-2020 [Videos]

Part 1: Click here to open

Part 2: Click here to open


Information for Contributors

Information for Contributors


General Information

The Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology (JHC) aims in our understanding of the pathophysiological and pathogenetic mechanisms of human disease by publishing original papers, review articles, case reports and short communications related to basic and translational fields in pathology. It serves as bridges between basic biomedical science and clinical medicine with particular emphasis on, but is not restricted to, tissue based studies only. It is published twice a year as the Journal Committee of the Bangladesh Academy of Pathology.

Manuscript Preparation.

Manuscripts should be prepared in MS Word format in accordance with The Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals

(see http://www.icmje.org). All pages of the manuscript should be double-spaced and numbered consecutively beginning with the Title page.  Each of the following sections should begin on separate pages: Title,  Name and affiliation of authors, Abstract and Keywords, Text, Acknowledgements, References, individual Tables and legends.  Reformatting of the accepted papers may be needed according to the Journal specifications.

Title Page

The title page should include (i) type of publication (original, review, case report etc.) (ii) the complete title of the article (iii) authors’ name in abbreviation  (iv) list of authors including full name, highest degree, signature, designation and institutional affiliation and (v) name, mailing address, email and telephone/mobile number of author responsible for correspondence.


It should begin with full title of the article. Do not write authors name in the abstract page. The abstracts should not be more than 200 words. The abstract should state the purpose of the study or investigations, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusion. Three to ten keywords may be provided below the abstract using terms from the Medical Subject Headings (Index Medicus, NLM, USA). Abbreviations and citations should be avoided.


The text of the original articles should be divided into following sections: Introduction,

Methods, Result and Discussion.


References to literature should be numbered in Arabic numerical in superscripts

consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. At the end of article the full list of references should give the name of all authors followed by the title of the article, the title of the journal abbreviated according to Index Medicus, the year of publication, volume number and first and last pages of the article. Title of the books should be followed by the edition, place of publication, the publisher, the year and the relevant pages. Examples of correct form of reference are given below: References should begin on a new page, be double-spaced and numbered in order of citation in the text, including citations in tables and figure legends. Citations that first appear in tables, figures, or supplemental data should be numbered according to the item’s first call out in the text; a separate reference list should not be prepared for supplemental data. Complete author citation is required (use of “et al” is only acceptable for sources with more than 35 authors).

References should conform to the style of the Journal.

 Examples follow:

Journals: van Riel D, Leijten LM, Kochs G, Osterhaus AD, Kuiken T: Decrease of Virus Receptors during Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Virus Infection in Humans and Other Mammals. Am J Pathol 2013, 183:1382-1389

 Electronic Journals: Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 2009, 6:e1000097. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097

 Books: Frosch MP: Central Nervous System. Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th Edition. Edited by Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Philadelphia, PA, Saunders, 2012, pp. 811-850

 Product Inserts: Cite in text only: (Affymetrix technical note: Globin Reduction Protocol: A Method for Processing Whole Blood RNA Samples for Improved Array Results. Santa Clara, CA).

 Web sites: Cite in text only. See Data Supplements and Non-Traditional Media section below for proper use of web site references. Use the doi when available. Include the name of the institution sponsoring the web site, URL address with direct linkage to the referenced information, and date of last access.


Tables should be typed written on separate numbered pages submitted after the main text on separate pages, as part of the manuscript. The preferred file format for Tables is MS Word. and should follow the reference list. All tables should be numbered consecutively using Roman numerical. Each must carry a brief descriptive heading. Tables should be planned to fit within print area. Table footnotes should use the sequential symbols: *, †, ‡, §, ¶, ∥; and abbreviations.


Figure file formats (including those embedded in the text) are unacceptable.

Photographs and photomicrographs should be of high resolution (minimum 5 mega pixels), in original unedited form and jpg format. These should contain a legend with magnification and stain used. Figure number and name of the first author should be mentioned in each file. Legend should be given in separate page.  Patients’ identification should be hidden.


Standard abbreviation should be used whenever possible. The full term for which the abbreviation stands followed by abbreviation in parenthesis should be proceed

the first use of the abbreviation in the text except for standard units of measurements

like 27OC and 25 mmol/L etc.

Letters to the editor

Communications with reference to an article published in the journal and current health

problems in the community will be accepted as letter to the editor.

 Electronic Copy

An electronic copy (soft copy) in the form of CD must be submitted with the printed copy of the article. Electronic copy may be send by email attachment at sadequel@yahoo.com. Text should be processed with MS Word and pictures should be saved in JPG format.

Manuscript Submission

Electronic version of the manuscripts should be submitted through email to the Executive Editor.  Alternatively send DVD/CD to: The Executive Editor of the Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology.  A cover letter to the editor must accompany the manuscript stating any,  (a) conflicts of interest (both financial and personal), (b) that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not being considered concurrently by another publication, and (c) all authors and acknowledged contributors have read and approved the manuscript. Submissions are not considered for review if previously published in any form (print or online) other than as an abstract. The editor reserves the customary right to style and if necessary shorten the material accepted for publication and to determine the priority and time of publication. Editor assumes that work based on honest observations. It is not the task of the editor to investigate scientific fraud paper.


The corresponding author will be contacted by email once proofs are ready, and will be directed to download electronic proofs from a secure website. The author should check the proofs carefully, mark any printer’s errors, and answer queries as requested. Author changes should be kept to a minimum. Proof corrections and replacement figures (if any) must be returned within 48 hours to avoid any delay in publication.

The Review Strategy

On receipt, manuscripts are assessed by the Editor-in-Chief, to one Associate Editor. The Reviewers’ and Associate Editor’s views are used by the Editor-in-Chief (or a Senior Editor) in reaching a decision, usually within three weeks of submission.

 Summary of Submission, General points

Format the word processing document as double spaced A4 pages with an additional space between paragraphs and margins of at least 2 cm all round. Use a 12-pt standard font such as Times, Helvetica or Arial (with Symbol for special characters). Do not use line numbering, but include page numbers in the header or footer, aligned right. Use consistent, preferably UK English spelling.

 Manuscript title

This should be clear, simple and concise; long titles lack impact. Please remember that many readers will only scan titles, so they should reflect the message of the paper and catch the readers’ attention.

 A short running title

This must be 75 characters or less, including spaces, and reflect the main title and content of the manuscript.

 List of authors

Authorship credit should be based only on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) final approval of the version to be published.

 A statement outlining the specific contribution of each author to the manuscript and the work reported in it must appear after the acknowledgements section (see below).

 Full affiliations of all authors:

Include the name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed. Append the corresponding author(s) full postal address, phone number and email address.

 Conflict of interest statements

Authors must disclose all financial and personal relationships that might bias their work; to prevent ambiguity, a conflict of interest statement must appear on the manuscript title page, detailing any conflicts (or the absence thereof) for each author.

 Word count (from beginning of Introduction to end of Discussion)

Concise articles make a greater impact than long ones and are less likely to be delayed by editing to a suitable length. Full articles should be no more than 4000 words from the beginning of the Introduction to the end of the Discussion. Review articles and special features may occasionally exceed this limit by arrangement with the Editor-in-Chief.

 Abstract (not structured and no more than 300 words)

Following the title page(s), the next page should carry an unstructured prose abstract of 300 words or less. It should clearly convey the purposes of the study, and the main procedures, findings and conclusions. It should be understandable without reference to the rest of the paper, and contain no citation to references in the reference list. Only standard abbreviations as listed below are permitted.

 Keywords (3 to 10)

Below the abstract, authors should provide and identify as such 3 to 10 keywords or short phrases to assist indexing the article and that may be published with the abstract. MESH headings are a useful guide for authors in considering keywords.

 Manuscript structure

Research articles are divided into sections with the headings: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. Long articles may need subheadings (especially within the Results and Discussion) to clarify their content. The sections should not be numbered. Other types of articles, such as reviews and commentaries, still need a title and abstract and should adhere as closely as possible to these guidelines.

Epidermal Nevus with Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis: A Case Report

Epidermal Nevus with Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis: A Case Report


*Fatima K,1 Banu SG,2 Kamal M3


  1. *Dr. Kaniz Fatima, Resident, Phase-B, Department of Pathology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU).joty2005.kfz@gmail.com
  2. Sultana Gulshana Banu, Associate Professor, Department of Pathology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU).
  3. Mohammed Kamal, Professor, Department of Pathology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU).





Epidermal nevus has various histological patterns. Epidermal nevus having features of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis is a rare condition. This lesion is clinically indistinguishable from other epidermal nevi but shows characteristic histological features. Diagnosis of this entity is important management. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis is an autosomal dominant disease. Offspring of these patients may have generalized epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Here we present a case of 12 years old boy with Epidermal nevus with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, which is a rare entity.

[Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology, 2020 Jan; 4 (1):65-69]

 Keywords: Epidermal nevus, Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, Generalized epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, Line of Blaschko.


Epidermal nevus comprises a heterogenous group of diseases. It is a congenital non-inflammatory cutaneous hamartoma. It may occur sporadically or as a part of several syndromes. The condition affects 1 in 1000 people in the world.1 Histologically, epidermal nevi are composed of keratinocytes, apocrine glands, eccrine glands, sebaceous glands or other components of pilosebaceous unit. Epidermal nevi are traditionally asymptomatic. Small number of cases of epidermal nevi show histologic features of epidermolysis hyperkeratosis. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis has been observed in variety of benign and malignant skin condition or hereditary disorders. Epidermal nevus with epidermolysis hyperkeratosis has a significant clinical importance. This patient carries the risk of parenting a child of gerneralizedepidermolytichyperkeratosis.2 We report a case of epidermal nevus showing epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in a 12 year old boy for the rarity of the entity.

 Case report

A 12 year old boy of a non-consanguineous parentage, presented with non-pruritic, dark coloured elevated skin eruptions since birth. The lesion was first observed over the dorsum of right foot. After that lesions gradually appeared in front of leg and thigh, lower abdomen and flexor aspect of both forearm. Lesions were not related with any seasonal variation. Patient had a normal birth history and developmental milestones. Right sided extremities were more involved than left side.Examination revealed numerous hyperpigmented warty papules distributed in both extremities and lower abdomen (Figure. 1 and 2).  Hair, nails and oral mucosa were normal. Other system examination revealed no abnormality. No laboratory investigation was done.

Clinically it was diagnosised as Linear verrucous epidermal nevus. For histopathological examination 3 mm punch biopsy was taken from right foot. Histological examination revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, papillomatosis, elongated rete ridges. The dermis revealed mild perivascular infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells.Some foci also revealed perinuclear vacuolization of the keratinocytes in spinous and granular layers, and increased number of keratohyalin granules in the stratum granulosum (Figure 3, 4 and 5).  So, histologically it was diagnosed as epidermal nevus with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis.


Epidermal nevus is hamartoma of skin, occurs due to over growth of epidermis. It arises from embryonic ectoderm as a result of mosaic postzygotic mutations. Lesions are present at birth in about half of the patients or may develop early in childhood. Depending on the affected component of the epidermis epidermal nevus can be divided into two types: keratinocytic or non organoidand organoid type.3 Keratinocytic epidermal nevus is the most common type of epidermal nevus. It occurs due to overgrowth of keratinocytes. Different varients of keratinocytic epidermal nevus are seen, such as linear epidermal nevus, hard nevus of Unna, soft epidermal nevus and nevus verrucosus etc.1 On the other hand organoid type shows predominantly another component of skin.4 Epidermal nevus occurs as a result of activated genetic mutation in FGFR-3, HRAS or PIK3CA genes. FOXN1 is highly expressed in these lesions.1 Most common pattern of keratinocytic nevus is linear epidermal nevus. The lesions are verrucous, skin-coloured dirty gray or brown coloured papule, which coalesce to form serpiginious plaques. They follow the line of Blaschko. These lines are thought to be representative pathways of epidermal cell migration and proliferation during development of fetus.5

Linear epidermal nevus may be either localized or systematized. In localized type, only one linear lesion is present and lesion is confined to one side of the body. Common sites are head, trunk and extremities. In systematized type there are many parallel linear lesions are seen. They may be unilateral or bilateral.

Localized and more commonly systematized linear epidermal nevus may be associated with skeletal deformity and CNS deficiency.6 Rarely squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma may arise in epidermal nevus.7

Epidermal nevus may occur as a part of epidermal nevus syndrome and may be associated with internal manifestation. These syndromes have characteristic cutaneous findings and at times relevantly specific internal findings.1  The six different types of epidermal nevus syndromes are nevus sebaceous, CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects) syndrome, nevus comedonicus, Becker’s nevus, Proteus syndrome, phacomatosispigmentokeratotica.

Histologically epidermis of epidermal nevus is hyperplastic. There is variable hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis and acanthosis with elongation of rete ridges. Upto 62% of biopsy specimens have these pattern and these are called non-epidermolytic epidermal nevus. About 16% of epidermal nevi show features of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Other histologic patterns are psoriatic type, acrokeratosisverruciformis like type and a Darier’s disease like type.1 Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis is more common in systematized type than localized type. This reaction pattern of skin was first described by Ackerman in 1970.7It occurs due to defective keratin genes (KRT-1 and KRT-2), which causes excessive and abnormal keratinization. The salient histologic features are- compact hyperkeratosis, perinuclear vacuolization of the cells in stratum malpighii, irregular cellular boundaries and increased numbers of large irregular keratohyaline granules. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis is seen in other conditions, such as- bullous congenital icthyosiformerythroderma, icthyosisbullosa of Siemens, Vorner’spalmoplanterkeratoderma, melanocytic nevus, epidermolyticacanthoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma etc.

Main clinical differential diagnosis of epidermal nevus areepidermodysplasiaverruciformis, inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus, linear psoriasis and lichenstriatus.Epidermodysplasiaverruciformis is a genetic disease characterized by HPV infection. This is usually associated with HPV 5 or 8, less commonly 3, 4, 5.1 Histologically this lesion is characterized by acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, large cells with blue-gray cytoplasm, often with dysplastic change and irregular granular layer with rare perinuclear halo. Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus (ILVEN) is a type of epidermal nevus. These lesions are also distributed in linear pattern, but they are erythematous and itchy. Histologically ILVEN is characterized by some specific features, which are absent in epidermal nevus. These are- areas of depressed orthokeratosis with underlyinghypergranulosis, alternating areas of slightly raised parakeratosis with underlying hypogranulosis.8 In linear psoriasis, the lesions may be pink to red papules or silvery scales. Typical histologic findings are regular elongation of rete ridges, thin suprapaillary plates, hypo or agranulosis, Munro microabcess and spongiform pustules of Kogoj, which are absent in epidermal nevus. In lichen striatus, the lesions are erythematous papules arranged in linear pattern following lines of Blaschko. But histologically it differs from epidermal nevus by presence of vacuolar alteration of basal layer and band like lymphocytic infiltrate.7 Treatment modalities of epidermal nevus are topical cream, cryotherapy, laser and dermabrasion. But management is difficult, because the lesions  recur unless treatment extend into dermis.


Epidermal nevus with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis is a rare condition. As this is a mosaic genetic disorder of suprabasal keratin, it can be transmitted to offspring and produce generalized epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. So genetic counseling is essential for these patients.


  1. James W, Berger T, Elston D, Neuhaus I. Andrew’s Diseases of the Skin. 12th ed. Philadelphia: ELSEVIER. 2016. pp 625-26
  2. Guite Z, Pamei D, Gunto H, Das K. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in verrucous epidermal nevus. Journal of medical society. 2014; 28(1): 47-8.
  3. Pollozhani N, Damevska K, Silvija D, Adjievska N, Gocev G. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis: clue for diagnosis. Global Dermatology.  2017; 4(1): 1-3.
  4. Ngan V (2003). All about the skin. Retrieved from DermNet NZ website.  https://www.dermanet.org.nz
  5. Kouzak SS, Mendes MS, Costa IM. Cutaneous mosaicisms: concepts, patterns and classifications. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(4):507-517.
  6. Edler D. in Lever’s Histopathology of the Skin. 10th Philadelphia: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS; 2009. pp: 791-92
  7. Das A, Podder I, Das A, Ghosh A, Shome K. Epidermolyticblaschkoidverrucous epidermal nevus: Report of two cases. Indian J DermatopatholDiagnDermatol. 2015; 2:46-8.
  8. Meibodi NT, Nahidi Y, Jaridi Z. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus. Indian J Dermatol. 2011; 56:309-12.


Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising within Mature Ovarian Teratoma: A Case Report

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising within Mature Ovarian Teratoma: A Case Report

Sadaf A, 1 Hossain MI,2  Sultana  N,3 Nasreen S,4 Rahman Z5


  1. *Dr. Anika Sadaf, MD. (Pathology) Phase B, Resident, Department of Pathology, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram, Bangladesh, 4203. anikasadaf261189@gmail.com.
  2. Mohammad Ismail Hossain. Lecturer, Department of Pathology, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram, Bangladesh, 4203.
  3. Nahid Sultana. Senior Consultant, Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 250 Bedded General Hospital,Chandpur, Bangladesh, 3600.
  4. Sayeeda Nasreen. Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram, Bangladesh, 4203.
  5. Zillur Rahman. Professor, Department of Pathology, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram, Bangladesh, 4203.

 *For correspondence


Mature cystic teratoma is the commonest ovarian germ cell tumor. Though malignant transformation is uncommon, papillary thyroid carcinoma has rarely been described as associated with ovarian teratomas. We report a case of a 34-years old multiparous woman who presented with acute abdominal pain and an ovarian mass. After salphingo-oophorectomy, the patient was diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that arose within a mature cystic ovarian teratoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising within a mature ovarian teratoma in this tertiary health care center in Chattogram. We recommend long term follow up to see any metastatic possibility.

 [Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology, 2020 Jan; 4 (1):60-64]

Keywords: Mature cystic teratoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, struma ovarii.


Among the ovarian germ cell tumors Mature Cystic Teratoma (MCT) is the most common and comprises 10–20% of all ovarian tumors. However, malignant transformation of MCT is not common and the incidence is 1–3%.1 Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest type, found in 80% of cases.2 Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) within teratoma is one of the rarest types with ranges varying from 0.1% and 0.2%, and usually diagnosed postoperatively.3 The synchronous development of malignant struma ovarii and primary thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare, though a handful of cases were reported.4 So, presence of thyroid tissue in teratoma, should proceed with further work up to confirm the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of a malignant lesion in the mass- either primary or metastasis.5 Here we present a case of a patient with a PTC arising within a ovarian MCT.

Case Presentation
34-year-old multiparous woman who had abdominal pain, distention and irregular menstrual bleeding for approximately for 6 months, presented to the emergency service of Chittagong Medical College Hospital in May 2019 with the complaints of a sharp pain in lower abdomen, with accompanying vomitting. There was no previous medical or surgical history.

On abdominal examination, a tender mass adjacent to the left side of the umbilicus were detected. Manual examination of the vagina revealed tenderness and mass in left adnexal region. Paps smear was done with no abnormality detected. Haemogram and biochemical test results were normal except a hemoglobin level of 9.2 gm/dl. CA-125 was within normal limit and β-HCG was normal. Ultrasonography of the lower abdomen revealed a complex solid cystic mass measuring 82x62x55 mm, with mixed echotexture, compatible with dermoid cyst.

At laparotomy, a cystic mass of approximately 9x7cm size, with a white, smooth glistening surface, originating from the left ovary was observed. Opposite ovary was apparently normal and no adhesion or intra-abdominal deposit was observed. Left sided salphingo-oophorectomy was performed preserving the uterus and right ovary and sent to Department of Pathology, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram for histopathological evaluation. On gross pathological examination, a cystic mass of 9 cm in diameter (fig-1) with 3cm fallopian tube were noted. On cross section, hair, sebum & fatty materials were come out and some thick greenish fluid was drained and some solid structure was observed on its wall (fig-2).

Microscopic examination revealed mature teratomatous component represented by skin with associated adnexal structures, muscles, fat, benign glands lined by mucin containing columnar epithelium (fig-3,4) and thyroid tissue, within the thyroid tissue foci papillary thyroid carcinoma (fig-5,6) was found. Lining cells had oval nuclei showing nuclear overlapping, grooving and intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions. Follicles also contained amorphous eosinophilic thick colloid. The fallopian tube was unremarkable. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed positivity for TTF-1 (fig-8,9). With these findings, diagnosis of a “mature cystic teratoma with malignant transformation to papillary thyroid carcinoma” was made. Postoperatively plasma levels of T3, T4, TSH and thyroglobulin of the patient were normal. A normal parenchymal vasculature was identified by postoperative ultrasonography of the thyroid gland.


Mature cystic teratomas are also known as dermoid cysts, because they are mostly cystic, skin & skin appendages are the most common structures. Thyroid tissue is present in 10% of the all cases.6 Teratomas containing more than 50% of thyroid tissues are called struma ovarii, often presented as monodermal teratoma.7 Malignant transformation of MCT is rare; however, several types of malignancy can develop from any one of three germ-cell layers. Squamous cell carcinoma, derived from ectoderm is the commonest type; less common malignancies include soft tissue sarcomas, adenocarcinomas, malignant melanomas, basal cell carcinomas, carcinoid tumors, and thyroid carcinomas.2 Among thyroid carcinomas the most common histological type is the papillary carcinoma (44%), other types are follicular carcinoma (30%) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (26%).3

 The malignant change of an initially benign cystic teratoma is detected in patients between 40 and 60 years of age, older than its benign counterpart. Although the cancer occurs at any age, most patients are postmenopausal.1 The tumor may present as pelvic discomfort, with a pelvic mass on abdominal imaging (USG, CT, MRI) or during laparotomy for any other reason. Preoperative definitive diagnosis of stroma ovarii or papillary thyroid carcinoma is not possible. The only possibility of preoperative diagnosis is by radioactive iodine scan (not done routinely).8 Various case reports have been published over the past few years regarding the histological diagnoses and treatment options. The diagnoses of thyroid carcinomas arising in teratomas should be made following the guidelines for diagnosing carcinomas in thyroid gland. Disease is treatable with good out come in most cases. Only 7% and 14% of patients with papillary carcinoma and typical follicular carcinoma, respectively died of disease. Due to rarity of disease no consensus on treatment has been made, however treatment options include oophorectomy, additional thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine and long term follow up with serum thyroglobulin measurement.9

In order to determine metastatic disease, in MCT cases undergoing malignant transformation, follow up of thyroglobulin (Tg) levels is recommended. The only source of circulating Tg is the thyroid tissue and ovarian teratomas containing thyroid tissue, which is a very rare condition. However, high Tg level in benign thyroid diseases hamper determination of it as a convenient tumour marker in MCT, who did not undergo thyroidectomy and who contain thyroid tissue with malignant transformation. On the other hand, the high levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) may cause Tg levels to be erroneously low. For this reason, the follow-up of Tg levels is favourable for patients, who underwent thyroidectomy only and for patients left with no or very little thyroid tissue. In order to evaluate Tg levels correctly, follow-up of Tg levels together with anti-Tg Ab levels is advisable as persisting high levels of anti-Tg Ab indicate a persistent disease.3 In our case, Plasma T3, T4, TSH and Tg level were normal and normal parenchymal vasculature was identified by ultrasonography of the thyroid gland. Anti-Tg Ab level can’t be performed due to patient’s refusal. Logani et al., 2001 was commented the absence of normal thyroid tissue and features of teratoma, in favour of a metastatic lesion originating from thyroid gland.10 In the presented case, histologic evidence of mature teratoma, normal thyroid tissue along foci of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and positive immunohistochemical stain for thyroid transcription factor-1(TTF-1) indicates primary thyroid carcinoma arising within MCT.


Whether further therapy with total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation may be beneficial is unknown. The rarity of MCT cases undergoing PTC transformation impedes the establishment of a protocol for treatment and follow-up. We recommend that a long-term follow-up of these cases is needed to know more about the prognosis and to see any local recurrence or metastasis.


  1. Rim SY, Kim SM, Choi HS. Malignant transformation of ovarian mature cystic teratoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006; 16:140–44.
  2. Pineyro MM, Pereda J, Schou P, Santos DL, Peña SDI, Caserta B,Pisabarro R. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma arising within a mature ovarian teratoma: case report and review of the literature. Clinical Medicine Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes. 2017; 10: 1–3.
  3. Cokmez H,Gulbahar A, Yigit S, Aydin C. Oncocytic and tall columnar type papillary thyroid carcinoma arising on a mature cystic teratoma: A case report and literature review. J Pak Med Assoc. 2019; 69:116-19.
  4. Tzelepis EG, Barengolts E, Garzon S, Shulan J, Eisenberg Y. Unusual case of malignant strumaovarii and cervical thyroid cancer preceded by ovarian teratoma: case report and review of the literature. Hindawi: Case Reports in Endocrinology. 2019 Mar 17; 1-7.
  5. Yeasmin S. A case of papillary thyroid cancer and extraovarian pelvic Teratoma.Journal of the Endocrine Society. 2019; 3(1). available at:https://doi.org/10.1210/js.2019-SUN-603.
  6. Bedir R,Yılmaz R. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and hashimoto’sthyroiditis developing within an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. Journal of Mid-life Health. 2019 April 10; 10: 45-47.
  7. ParulskaES, Pioch A, Chyrek EC, Wolinski K, Jurczyszyn DJ, Jedynska MJ, Majewski P, Zabel M,Ruchala M. The role of immunohistochemical examination in diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer in strumaovarii. Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica. 2019;57(1):35–42.
  8. Naeem M, Iqbal M, Imran MB,Tabassum R. Malignant strumaovarii: a rare case report. European Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2017; 2(1): 30-32.
  9. Haider A, Hussain M, Hassan U, Loya A. Papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in ovarian teratomas: A report of three cases. Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College (JIMDC). 2015 Sep 27; 4(2): 88-90.
  10. Logani S, Baloch ZW, Snyder PJ, Weinstein R, LiVolsi VA. Cystic ovarian metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2001; 11(11): 1073-1075.


Histopathological Diagnosis of Rhinofacial Entomophthoramycosis in a 16-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report

Histopathological Diagnosis of Rhinofacial Entomophthoramycosis in a 16-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report

*Asaduzzaman,1 Khandkar T,2 Rahman DA3 


  1. *Dr. Asaduzzaman, Assistant Professor of Histopathology, Sheikh HasinaNational Institute of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Dhaka, Bangladesh. dr.asad37@gmail.com
  2. Tahmina Khandkar, Assistant Registrar, Paediatric Nephrology, National Institute of Kidney Diseases and Urology, Shere-E-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka
  3. DM Arifur Rahman, Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, TMSS Medical College, Bogura

 *For correspondence


Rhinoentomophthoramycosis is an uncommon and severely disfiguring disease. It mainly involves the mucosa of the nares, nasal passages, nasal sinuses, nasopharynx, mouth and spreads to adjacent tissues causing disfigurement of face. Histopathological examinations and mycological cultures are the gold standard for confirmation of entomophthoramycosis. We report a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented with swelling and ulcer of face. Clinical presentation along with typical histopathologic findings were diagnostic in this case.

 [Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology, 2020 Jan; 4 (1):55-59]

 Keywords: Entomophthoramycosis, zygomycosis, fungal infection of face, fungal granuloma, splendore-Hoeppli reaction


Rhinoentomophthoramycosis is not so common in Bangladesh as well as other parts of the world. It is a grossly disfiguring disease. The medically important class zygomycetes are in two orders, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. Rhinofacialentomophthoralesmainly affects the mucosa of the nares, nasal passages, nasal sinuses, nasopharynx, mouth, and spreads to adjacent tissues causing disfigurement of the face. It occurs predominantly in immunocompetent individuals and live as saprophytes in soil and decaying plant matter.1 Rhinofacialconidiobolomycosis affects the subcutaneous tissues of the face, especially the paranasal sinuses as well as the deeper organs.2 We report the case of a teen-aged female who presented to us with facial swelling and ulcer and was diagnosed by histopathology.

 Case Report

An immunocompetent16-year-old girl from Chittagong presented to the outpatient department of Sheikh Hasina National Institute of Burn and Plastic Surgery with a one year history of progressive nasal and maxillofacial swelling. Swelling of face started from the nasal bridge and gradually spread into the left side of the face. For the facial swelling she had received multiple treatments, including glucocorticoids and antibiotics. But for the last one month she developed multiple ulcers with purulent discharge over the swelling. The physical examination reveals an ulcer over upper part of left cheek and swelling over bridge of nose. Adjacent area revealed erythema, edema, and tenderness over the nasal dorsum and forehead, extending to the soft tissue around left eyes (Fig. 1). Initially she has undergone biochemical and radiological investigations.

Laboratory investigations included a haemoglobin of 11.6 gm/dl, total leucocyte count 12.36×109/L with a differential count within normal range, and platelet count was 400.1x 109/L. Other biochemical tests were within normal limit. Serology for hepatitis B surface antigen and human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 were negative. MRI of face revealed diffuse soft tissue thickening involving the paranasal sinuses, skin and subcutaneous tissue in left side of face extending into the left zygomatoco-temporal region.  Direct naso-endoscopic examination revels left sided middle meatus. Septum and lateral wall of nose were congested. Middle meatus was adherent to the lateral wall of nose. At right side, crest of nose, middle meatus was distorted, nasal septum was absent/dehiscent on posterior part. There was no growth on nasopharynx. Biopsy specimens were obtained from multiple sites, including the forehead and the nose. The gross specimen consisted of two skin covered piece of tissue; largest one measured 4x3x1.5 cm and smaller one measures 1.5×0.8×0.5 cm. Skin surface showed multiple ulcers. The cut surface was solid and tan gray. Histopathological examination showed a chronic granulomatous inflammation (Fig. 2) with broad nonseptate branching hyphae surrounding amorphous eosinophilic substance, the Splendore-Hoeppli reaction (Fig. 3). Marked lympho-plasmacytic cell infiltrate with tissue eosinophilia and foreign body type of giant cells containing fungal elements were present. Periodic acid Schiff and Gomori-Methenamine-Silverstain highlighted the fungal elements and the surrounding amorphous eosinophilic material (Fig. 4 and 5). She was diagnosed as a case of Rhinofacialentomophthoramycosis. The patient was then on systemic antifungal therapy.


Rhinofacialentomophthoramycosis is an uncommon fungal infection; it mostly occurs in the tropical and subtropical regions of different parts of the world. G. Bras reported the first case of a Jamaican native in 1965. It is predominantly a chronic mucocutaneous and subcutaneous infection. The name Entomophthorales was coined from the Greek word “Entomon” meaning insect implicating their pathogenic nature in insects. Formerly, the two orders, namely Mucorales and Entomophthorales, were classified in the phylum Zygomycota. Hibbett et al. suggested a comprehensive phylogenetic classification of the kingdom Fungi, and the phylum Zygomycota was eliminated as a result of polyphyletic characteristics.3 Therefore, the taxa belonging to Zygomycota were distributed among the phylum Glomeromycota and four subphyla of uncertain placement (incertaesedis). Entomophthorales and Mucorales as well as two other orders (Kickxellales and Zoopagales) were raised to the rank of subphyla and renamed as EntomophthoromycotinaMucoromycotinaKickxellomycotina,and Zoopagomycotina.4 Entomophthoromycotina encompasses twogenera that cause human infection, Basidiolus and Conidiolus.

Humans suffering from rhinoentomophthoromycosis get infected by the attachment of conidia of Ccoronatus to nasal/sinusoidal mucosa. Initially, the disease presents like sinusitis.5 A nodule at the nostrils indicates expansion into the subcutaneous fat.6 The infection spreads within the subcutaneous fatty layers of the nasal bridge, eyelids, cheek, and upper lip. Swellings are firm, indolent, and, initially, often reddened and warm, while later they are often itchy.7 Mucosal swellings rarely affect laryngeal structures or cause dyspnoea. Ulcerations of skin or mucosa may occurs, as we found in our case. Skin-adherent structures, eye motility, and vision usually remain unaffected; and bones, vessels, muscle, and lymph nodes are rarely involved. The course of the disease is usually benign.8

The diagnosis is based on a combination of mycologic and histopathological tests, and clinical presentation.Histological examinations and mycological cultures are the gold standard for confirmation of entomophthoromycosis. Biopsy of skin lesions is preferred for diagnosis than pus, as the chances of positive identification with potassium hydroxide preparation and culture are better with tissue specimens.9 Entomophthoromycosis can be easily differentiated from other fungi by their characteristic hyphal morphology. The hyphae are broad, aseptate, or sparsely septate, with right-angle branching.10 The histological inflammatory reaction shows infiltration with lymphocytes, plasma cells, epithelioid cells, multinucleate giant cells, and histiocytes with an area of central necrosis that is surrounded by eosinophilic infiltration. This phenomenon is called Splendore–Hoeppli phenomenon.10 Our patient had all these typical features. PAS stain and GomoriMethenamine-Silver (GMS) stains are useful to demonstrate the fungal hyphae. Examination under fluorescent microscopy using fluorescent dye (Blankophor) wet mount preparation increases the sensitivity of diagnosis.11 Definitive diagnosis requires culture, polymerase chain reaction testing, and immunohistochemistry.

Treatment for endomophthoromycosis ismedical and surgical. Systemic antifungal therapy and or surgical debridement is the primary choice in most cases. Several antifungal agents are used for the treatment of endomophthoromycosis such as itraconazole and amphotericin B.12


The entomophthoromycosis is a severe fungal disease that can affect both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Despite the clinical features, the disease requires biopsy for diagnosis, as histological examinations and mycological cultures are the gold standard for confirmation of entomophthoramycosis.This disease have a favorable prognosis if early treatments can be ensured.


  1. Manning RJ, Waters SD, Callaghan AA. Saprotrophy of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus in leaf litter. Mycol Res. 2007; 111: 1437–1449.
  2. Prabhu RM, Patel R. Mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis: A review of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. ClinMicrobiol Infect 2004;10 Suppl 1:31-47.
  3. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, Blackwell M, Cannon PF, Eriksson OE, et al. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the fungi. Mycol Res 2007;111:509-47.
  4. Kwon-Chung KJ. Taxonomy of fungi causing mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis (zygomycosis) and nomenclature of the disease: Molecular mycologic perspectives. Clin Infect Dis 2012;54Suppl 1:S8-15.
  5. Choon SE, Kang J, Neafie RC, Ragsdale B, Klassen-Fischer M, Carlson JA. Conidiobolomycosis in a young Malaysian woman showing chronic localized fibrosingleukocytoclasticvasculitis: a case report and meta-analysis focusing on clinicopathologic and therapeutic correlations with outcome. Am J Dermatopathol. 2012; 34: 511–522.
  6. Choon SE, Kang J, Neafie RC, Ragsdale B, Klassen-Fischer M, Carlson JA. Conidiobolomycosis in a young Malaysian woman showing chronic localized fibrosingleukocytoclasticvasculitis: a case report and meta-analysis focusing on clinicopathologic and therapeutic correlations with outcome. Am J Dermatopathol. 2012; 34: 511–522.
  7. Martinson FD. Chronic Phycomycosis of the Upper Respiratory Tract: RhinophycomycosisEntomophthorae. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1971; 20: 449–455.
  8. Ribes JA, Vanover-Sams CL, Baker DJ. Zygomycetes in Human Disease. ClinMicrobiol Infect. 2000; 13: 236–301.
  9. Chowdhary A, Randhawa HS, Khan ZU, Ahmad S, Khanna G, Gupta R, et al.Rhinoentomophthoromycosis due to Conidioboluscoronatus. A case report and an overview of the disease in India. Med Mycol 2010;48:870-9.
  10. El-Shabrawi MH, Arnaout H, Madkour L, Kamal NM. Entomophthoromycosis: A challenging emerging disease. Mycoses 2014;57Suppl 3:132-7.
  11. Kumar Verma R, Shivaprakash MR, Shanker A, Panda NK. Subcutaneous zygomycosis of the cervicotemporal region: Due to Basidiobolusranarum. Med Mycol Case Rep 2012;1:59-62.
  12. Prabhu RM, Patel R. Mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis: A review of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. ClinMicrobiol Infect 2004;10Suppl 1:31-47.



C3 Glomerulopathy: Overview on a New Disease Entity

C3 Glomerulopathy: Overview on a New Disease Entity


*Rahman DA,1 Banu SG2


  1. *Dr. DM Arifur Rahman, Assistant Professor, Pathology, TMSS Medical College, Bogura. arifurrahmandm@gmail.com
  2. Sultana Gulshana Banu, Associate Professor, Pathology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka.

 *For correspondence


The diagnosis of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) has recently undergone change from an electron microscopy-based classification scheme to one based largely on immunofluorescence findings. Recent advances in our understanding of the disease pathology of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis has resulted in its re-classification as complement C3 mediated glomerulopathy (C3G) and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (IC-GN). The new concept is based on its underlying pathogenesis, with a key pathogenetic role for the complement alternative pathway (AP), rather than on histomorphological characteristics. This overview summarizes the current state of knowledge about the C3 glomerulopathy.

 [Journal of Histopathology and Cytopathology, 2020 Jan; 4 (1):48-54]

 Keywords: C3 glomerulopathy, Dense deposit disease, C3 glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis


C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is an emerging kidney disease caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway.1,2,3 The characteristic pathology of this disease is glomerular depositions of dominant C3 with absent or weak immunoglobulins. Therefore, C3G is basically diagnosed by immunofluorescence (IF) and it can reveal various patterns of glomerular injuries by light microscopy(LM).4,5 Following the recent trend of pathogenesis-based reclassification of glomerular diseases, glomerulonephritis associated with alternative complement dysregulation is collectively referred to as C3G.6 Because laboratory detection of alternative complement dysregulation is still uncommon in current practice, predominant C3 deposition by IF is an initial finding that suggests C3G. However, glomerular diseases caused by mechanisms other than alternative complement dysregulation may occasionally satisfy “C3-dominant deposition with scanty immunoglobulins” as stated in the current consensus report.4 Clearly, pathogenesis based classification in glomerular diseases is an important prospect for appropriate therapies, but the entity of C3G still presents dilemmas in diagnostic practice by lack of clear definition and pathogenic basis. We review the current status of C3 glomerulopathy, histological, immunofluorescence findings and treatment

MPGN and C3 Glomerulopathy

Understanding the limitations of current MPGN classification requires a brief review of complement activation pathways. There are two main pathways of complement activation: the classic pathway, which is activated when IgG or IgM antibodies bind to antigens; and the alternative pathway, which does not require the presence of antibodies and can be auto activated by spontaneous cleavage of C3 to C3b, leading to the formation of C3 convertase. The electron microscopy-based classification can result in overlap between types I and III. Both types have been considered to be immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis but, observations suggest that some cases of MPGN type I or MPGN type III are mediated by complement, not immune complexes.7,8,9

So, the historical classification required modification. It is not based on pathogenesis and there is significant overlapping, which is described earlier. In recent years, there have been great advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of MPGN, particularly in the area of complement-mediated C3 glomerulopathies, including DDD and C3 glomerulonephritis. 4,10

It is proposed that MPGN be classified into two major groups: immunoglobulin (Ig)-mediated and complement-mediated (C3G). If immunoglobulins are present on IF studies, the evaluation should include a work-up for infections, autoimmune diseases, and monoclonal gammopathies, including cryoglobulins. It should be kept in mind that Ig-mediated MPGN also is associated with extensive C3 (and C4) deposition along the capillary walls via activation of the classic pathway of complement. On the other hand, if the IF studies show predominantly C3 and are negative or show no significant staining for Igs, an in-depth study of the AP is warranted. Ig-mediated MPGN is more likely to be present in adults whereas complement-mediated MPGN is more likely to be present in children and young adults. It is likely that C3G noted in children and young adults is due to genetic mutations in complement-regulating proteins, whereas it is acquired in adults as a result of development of autoantibodies to complement-regulating proteins. Initial evaluation of AP should include serum MAC levels, an alternative pathway functional assay, and hemolytic complement assays. If the initial screening is positive, it should be followed by genetic analysis for mutations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of autoantibodies to complement-regulating proteins.11-14

The current approach, therefore, distinguishes those forms of MPGN with isolated C3 deposits (including DDD and C3GN) as alternative complement pathway-mediated C3G from those cases of MPGN that are mediated by the classical complement pathway with deposits of Ig and complement.

Clinical Presentation

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis or C3G are rare diseases with an estimated incidence of 1–2 per million per total population.15  Patients with C3G present with a variety of symptoms, ranging from a mild disease with asymptomatic microhaematuria and/or proteinuria to a severe disease with nephritic or nephrotic syndrome and renal impairment. Renal survival was worse if the GFR at diagnosis is <60 ml/min/1.73 m2.16

The kidney is the major target, possibly due to the morphological specificities of the glomerular capillaries, in particular the fenestrated endothelium, with exposure of the glomerular basement membrane to serum (complement). Although low levels of C3 are considered a hallmark feature of C3G, in one study low C3 levels were only detected in about 50 % of the patients. Therefore, a normal C3 level does not rule out C3G.17

Nasr et al., 2009 studied 32 paediatric and adult patient of dense deposit disease and Lu., et al 2012 studied 92 children and adult patient of dense deposit disease. Both of the studies reveal at presentation, almost all patients have proteinuria usually with haematuria. Nephrotic-range proteinuria is present in two thirds of the patients. Full nephrotic syndrome in 12% to 65% in different series conducted by Lu et al., 2006 and Servais et al., 2012. Persistently, low serum levels of C3 are found in most patients (approximately 80%). Servais et al have reported the clinical features in 56 patients with C3 glomerulopathy without dense deposits (C3GN) and compared them with 29 patients with DDD and 49 patients with immune complex MPGN type 1. The mean age at diagnosis for C3GN was 30, which was significantly higher than for DDD; 25% of patients were below16 years of age. Twenty-seven percent of patients with C3GN had nephrotic syndrome at presentation as compared with 38% of patients with DDD and 65% of patients with MPGN type I.18,19,20

 Light Microscopy

Light microscopic findings in C3 glomerulopathy can range from membranoproliferative lesions to mesangioproliferative or endocapillary proliferative lesions with or without presence of crescents. In rare instances, light microscopy might be normal. The electron dense osmophilic deposits as seen characteristically in DDD are found within the glomerular basement membrane, and as rounded deposits in the mesangium. In many cases, deposits are also seen in Bowman’s capsule and tubular basement membranes. C3 glomerulopathy, in which deposits do not completely fulfill criteria for dense deposits, are classified as C3GN. Electron microscopy in C3GN shows a complex pattern of mesangial increase and glomerular basement membrane thickening. Differing combinations of subendothelial, intramembranous, and subepithelial deposits are noted.21,22,23

DDD is defined by the presence of dense osmiophilic transformation of the GBM on EM, and on light microscopy, the morphology is variable. While it is clear that a membranoproliferative pattern of glomerular injury with increased lobulation, mesangial expansion, and capillary wall thickening with segmental double contours is common, a range of other patterns of glomerular involvement also occur. Walker et al., 2007 collected 69 cases of DDD from centers in North America, Europe, and Japan. They identified four distinct histologic patterns on light microscopy: membranoproliferative (25%), mesangial proliferative (45%), crescentic (18%), and acute proliferative and exudative (12%).21 In the Columbia series conducted by Nasr et al., 2009 which includes 32 cases of DDD, the frequencies were MPGN (44%), mesangial proliferative(28%), endocapillary proliferative (19%), and crescentic GN (9%). These reports emphasize that fewer than 50% of cases of DDD have MPGN morphology. Morphologically, most C3GN cases show either a mesangial proliferative or membranoproliferative pattern.18

The dense deposits are recognized on light microscopy by thickening of the GBMs by ribbon-like glassy intramembranous deposits. They stain strongly with eosin and appear somewhat refractile (hyaline). They are intensely periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, and the trichrome stain shows them to be fuchsinophilic (red) although this reactivity varies among specimens.23

 Immunofluorescence findings

Immunofluorescence shows characteristic C3 fragment deposition in C3GN.16  But the deposition of C3 is not always isolated. According to the current consensus report, the term ‘‘isolated’’ was replaced by “dominant staining of C3 defined as at least two orders of C3 intensity greater than that of any other immune reactant.” 4

Nasr et al., 2009, Walker et al., 2007, West and McAdams, 1998 studied the immunofluorescence findings. The invariable finding in DDD and C3GN is the presence of C3 in the glomeruli. Intense staining for C3 is noted along the glomerular capillary walls and often in the glomerular mesangial regions. The C3 deposition is usually diffuse and global. The GBM staining may be continuous or discontinuous. The early components of complement, C1q and C4, are usually absent, although occasionally C1q is found.  Immunoglobulins are usually absent or show only focal and segmental staining. If they are present, they often stain much less intensely than C3 and they are usually of the IgM type with a segmental distribution; IgG and especially IgA are less common.18,21,24

Treatment and Prognosis

Modality of treatment of MPGN is difficult and its prognosis is also guarded. About 50% develop chronic renal failure within 10 years. There is a high incidence of recurrence in transplant recipients, particularly in dense-deposit disease. Treatments with steroids, immunosuppressive agents, and antiplatelet drugs have not been proved to be materially effective.25

 Eculizumab, the first available anticomplement therapy, blocks at the level of C5 and has revolutionized the treatment of complement-mediated diseases as well as C3 glomerulopathy.13 This agent is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds with great affinity to C5 proteins, inhibiting cleaving into C5a and C5b and blocking production of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex. Reports of individual cases showed improvement after treatment, with reduced serum creatinine and proteinuria. Bomback et al 2012, reported that, after 1 year of therapy with eculizumab, there was reduction in active glomerular proliferation and neutrophil infiltration three of five patients, consistent with effective C5 blockade.26


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